Chowning & Music IV

With FM synthesis (see CMB: A Brief History ), John Chowning invented a wide spread synthesis technique, which was used extensively in 1980s pop music. When exploring this novel technique, he also lay the foundation for computer-based audio spatialization. With Music 10, a descendant of Max Mathews MUSIC IV, Chowning was able to create four-channel compositions with programmed movements of virtual sound sources. This object-based approach is still used in most cases today.


In Turenas (1972), source movements are enhanced with Doppler shift and the proper handling of the direct-to-reverb ratio:


Displaced circular movement with Doppler shift and reverberation (Chowning, 2011).

The above presented technique was used with Lissajous movements, which are characteristic for Turenas:


Stereo Version



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    [abstract▼] [details] [BibTeX▼]


  • Martha Brech and Henrik von Coler. Aspects of space in Luigi Nono's Prometeo and the use of the Halaphon. In Martha Brech and Ralph Paland, editors, Compositions for Audible Space, Music and Sound Culture, pages 193–204. transctript, 2015.
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    [details] [BibTeX▼]


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    [details] [BibTeX▼]



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    [details] [BibTeX▼]
  • Jonas Braasch, Nils Peters, and Daniel Valente. A loudspeaker-based projection technique for spatial music applications using virtual microphone control. Computer Music Journal, 32:55–71, 09 2008.
    [details] [BibTeX▼]