Concatenative: Introduction

Concatenative synthesis is an evolution of granular synthesis, first introduced in the context of speech synthesis and processing (Charpentier, 1986; Hamon, 1989).

Concatenative synthesis for musical applications has been introduced by Diemo Schwarz. Corpus-based concatenative synthesis (Schwarz, 2000; Schwarz 2006) splices audio recordings into units and calculates audio features for each unit. During synthesis, unit selection can be performed by navigating the multidimensional feature space and selected units are concatenated.


(Schwarz, 2006)


(Schwarz, 2006)



  • Grimaldi, Vincent and Böhm, Christoph and Weinzierl, Stefan and von Coler, Henrik. Parametric Synthesis of Crowd Noises in Virtual Acoustic Environments. In Proceedings of the 142nd Audio Engineering Society Convention. Audio Engineering Society, 2017.
    [details] [BibTeX▼]
  • Christian Knörzer. Concatenative crowd noise synthesis. Master's thesis, TU Berlin, 2017.
    [details] [BibTeX▼]



  • Diemo Schwarz. Concatenative sound synthesis: The early years. Journal of New Music Research, 35(1):3–22, 2006.
    [details] [BibTeX▼]
  • Diemo Schwarz, Grégory Beller, Bruno Verbrugghe, and Sam Britton. Real-Time Corpus-Based Concatenative Synthesis with CataRT. In In DAFx. 2006.
    [details] [BibTeX▼]


  • Diemo Schwarz. A System for Data-Driven Concatenative Sound Synthesis. In Proceedings of the COST-G6 Conference on Digital Audio Effects (DAFx-00). Verona, Italy, 2000.
    [details] [BibTeX▼]


  • C. Hamon, E. Mouline, and F. Charpentier. A diphone synthesis system based on time-domain prosodic modifications of speech. In International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing,, 238–241 vol.1. May 1989. doi:10.1109/ICASSP.1989.266409.
    [details] [BibTeX▼]


  • F. Charpentier and M. Stella. Diphone synthesis using an overlap-add technique for speech waveforms concatenation. In ICASSP '86. IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, volume 11, 2015–2018. April 1986. doi:10.1109/ICASSP.1986.1168657.
    [details] [BibTeX▼]